Euro 2024: Jadwal pertandingan, ‘grup neraka’, dan favorit juara

Italia, Euro 2024
Keterangan gambar,Juara bertahan Italia akan berada di Grup B Euro 2024 bersama Spanyol, Kroasia, dan Albania.

Penantian para pecinta sepakbola hampir berakhir. Sebanyak 16 tim sepak bola nasional papan atas Eropa akan mulai berkompetisi di Piala Eropa 2024 atau Euro 2024 dalam waktu kurang dari 10 hari.

Ketika 16 negara telah terbagi ke dalam empat grup dan jadwal pertandingan telah ditentukan, berikut rincian lengkap untuk Euro 2024.

Kapan turnamen akan dimulai?

Digelar di Jerman, Euro 2024 resmi dimulai pada 14 Juni mendatang di Allianz Arena, kandang Bayern Munich.

Skotlandia akan menjadi tim yang menghadapi tuan rumah pada pertandingan pertama turnamen tersebut.

Akan ada dua hingga empat pertandingan setiap hari di babak grup hingga 26 Juni dan babak 16 besar akan dimulai pada 29 Juni.

Dari empat grup, terdapat dua ‘grup neraka’ yang masing-masing dihuni setidaknya dua tim kuat. Kedua grup itu adalah Grup B dan Grup D.

Grup B berisi Spanyol, Kroasia, Italia, Albania. Sedangkan Grup D berisi Polandia, Belanda, Austria, Prancis.

Anda bisa mengunduh kalender Euro 2024 melalui tautan ini

kalender Euro 2024

Ajang ini akan berakhir pada hari Minggu, 14 Juli di Olympiastadion, Berlin.

Euro 2024 akan menjadi turnamen pertama yang diselenggarakan Jerman sejak reunifikasi. PIala Eropa edisi tahun 1988 diadakan di Jerman Barat.

Kapan tiket pertandingan mulai dijual?

Tiket pertandingan awalnya dijual untuk umum dari tanggal 3 hingga 26 Oktober 2023 lalu dan dialokasikan melalui undian.

Fase penjualan utama tiket UEFA EURO 2024 sekarang telah berakhir.

UEFA memperingatkan para penggemar bahwa penjual tiket tidak resmi berupaya mengeksploitasi tingginya permintaan dengan menawarkan tiket palsu di pasar sekunder.

Siapa difavoritkan menjadi juara?

Inggris adalah favorit semua bandar taruhan di Inggris pada saat artikel ini disusun, dengan peluang 3/1.

Prancis di urutan kedua dengan peluang 4/1 dan tuan rumah Jerman di urutan ketiga dengan 5/1.

Georgia, Albania, Slovenia dan Slovakia dianggap sebagai tim dengan kemungkinan juara paling kecil, masing-masing antara 200/1 hingga 900/1.

Bagaimana pembagian grup Euro 2024?

Grup A: Jerman, Skotlandia, Hungaria, Swiss

Grup B: Spanyol, Kroasia, Italia, Albania

Grup C: Slovenia, Denmark, Serbia, Inggris

Grup D: Polandia, Belanda, Austria, Prancis

Grup E: Belgia, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraina

Grup F: Turki, Georgia, Portugal, Republik Cekohttps://flo.uri.sh/visualisation/18266670/embed?auto=1

Bagaimana cara menonton pertandingan di Indonesia?

Grup MNC memegang hak siar tunggal Euro 2024 di Indonesia. Publik memiliki opsi menyaksikan tayangan pertandingan secara gratis dan berbayar melalui siaran yang mereka sajikan.

Bagaimana performa tim peserta Euro 2024?

Menjelang turnamen, enam tim tidak terkalahkan selama kualifikasi. Mereka adalah Prancis, Inggris, Portugal, Belgia, Romania, dan Hungaria.

Portugal adalah satu-satunya tim yang memenangkan setiap pertandingan. Mereka mengakhiri kualifikasi dengan mencetak 36 gol dan hanya kebobolan dua kali.

Spanyol dan Skotlandia hanya kalah satu kali, sedangkan Turki dan Austria juga lolos dengan rekor tak kalah impresif.

Meskipun Portugal memenangkan setiap pertandingan kualifikasi, mereka tidak memiliki pencetak gol terbanyak dalam fase kualifikasi.

Pencetak gol terbanyak adalah penyerang Inter Milan, Romelu Lukaku, yang mencetak 14 gol dalam delapan pertandingan untuk Belgia.

Stadion mana saja yang akan menggelar laga?

Allianz Arena dan Olympiastadion akan terlihat sepanjang turnamen. Total ada 10 kota tuan rumah, termasuk Cologne dan Dortmund.

Signal Iduna Park, kandang klub Borussia Dortmund, akan menjadi tuan rumah pertandingan di Grup B, D dan F, sekaligus terpilih sebagai salah satu venue babak 16 besar dan semifinal.

Berikut daftar lengkap tempat penyelenggaraan turnamen tersebut:

  • Berlin: Olympiastadion (70.000 tempat duduk)
  • Cologne: Cologne Stadium (47.000)
  • Dortmund: BVB Stadion Dortmund (66.000)
  • Dusseldorf: Dusseldorf Arena (47.000)
  • Frankfurt: Frankfurt Arena (48.000)
  • Gelsenkirchen: Arena AufSchalke (50.000)
  • Hamburg: Volksparkstadion Hamburg (50.000)
  • Leipzig: Leipzig Stadium (42.000)
  • Munich: Munich Football Arena (67.000)
  • Stuttgart: Stuttgart Arena (54.000)

Siapa pesepakbola populer yang tak akan berlaga di Euro 2024?

Penyerang Manchester City, Erling Haaland, dan gelandang Arsenal, Martin Odegaard, tidak akan ambil bagian dalam kompetisi ini karena Norwegia gagal lolos.

Di grup kualifikasi yang sama dengan Spanyol dan Skotlandia, mereka tidak mengumpulkan cukup poin untuk mendapatkan tempat otomatis dan juga tidak bisa lolos melalui babak play-off.

Swedia adalah negara penting lainnya yang tidak akan ambil bagian di Jerman, karena gagal lolos untuk pertama kalinya sejak tahun 1996.

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The impact of recognising a Palestinian state

Reuters A Palestinian girl carries cans to collect water in Khan Younis, in the southern Gaza Strip, on 22 May
Many countries say they will only recognise a Palestinian state as part of a long-term political solution

As fighting and suffering continues in Gaza, and violence grows in the West Bank, prospects of the Palestinian people gaining their own state might seem further away than ever.

The decision by several European countries to formally recognise the existence of a Palestinian state will not overcome the reality that such ambition still faces huge obstacles.

But the declarations by Ireland, Spain and Norway will put pressure on other countries in Europe – including the UK, France and Germany – to follow them in supporting Palestinian self-determination.

“This is extremely significant,” one Arab diplomat said. “It reflects European frustration with the Israeli government’s refusal to listen.

“And it puts pressure on the EU to follow suit.”

But Israeli ministers insist this will encourage Hamas and reward terrorism, further reducing the chances of a negotiated settlement.

Most countries – about 139 in all – formally recognise a Palestinian state.

On May 10, 143 out of 193 members of the United Nations’ general assembly voted in favour of a Palestinian bid for full UN membership, something that is only open to states.

Palestine currently has a kind of enhanced observer status at the UN, which gives them a seat but not a vote in the assembly.

It is also recognised by various international organisations including the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

A minority of European countries already recognise a Palestinian state. They comprise Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria which adopted the position 1988; and others including Sweden, Cyprus and Malta.

But many European nations – and the United States – say they will recognise a Palestinian state only as part of a long-term political solution to the conflict in the Middle East.

This is often referred to as the ‘two-state solution’ where both Israelis and Palestinians agree to have their own states with their own borders.

European countries and the US differ over when they should recognise a Palestinian state.

Ireland, Spain and Norway say they are doing so now to kick-start a political process. They argue there will be a sustained solution to the current crisis only if both sides can aim at some kind of political horizon.

These countries are also responding to domestic political pressures to show more support for Palestinians.

In the past, the position of many Western countries was that Palestinian statehood should be a prize for a final peace agreement.

But Lord Cameron, the UK Foreign Secretary, and some other European countries have in recent months shifted their positions, saying the recognition of Palestinian statehood could come earlier, to help drive momentum towards a political settlement.

In February, President Macron of France said: “The recognition of a Palestinian state is not a taboo for France.”

And earlier this month, France supported Palestinian membership of the UN in the general assembly vote.

The US has privately discussed this issue with European allies but is more cautious and wants a clearer sense of what the policy would mean in practice.

So the key debate behind the scenes is about when these holdout countries should recognise a Palestinian state: when formal peace talks begin between Israelis and Palestinians, when Israel and Saudi Arabia normalise diplomatic relations, when Israel fails to undertake certain actions, or when the Palestinians take certain actions.

In other words, they want recognition of the state of Palestine to be a big moment designed to achieve a diplomatic outcome.

“It is a big card that Western countries have to play,” one Western official said. “We don’t want to throw it away.”

The problem is that recognising a Palestinian state is largely a symbolic gesture if it does not also address the vital concomitant questions.

What should the borders be? Where should the capital be located? What should both sides do first to make it happen?

These are difficult questions that have not been agreed – or even answered – satisfactorily for decades.

As of today, a few more countries in Europe now believe there should be a Palestinian state.

Supporters will cheer the move, opponents will decry it.

The grim reality for Palestinians on the ground is unlikely to change.

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Domestic tourism soars in China but foreigners stay away

BBC/KATHERINA TSE A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is to pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing
A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing

With the Chinese economy facing massive challenges, there have been concerns over its growth potential, at least in the immediate future.

Yet a key exception is emerging in the form of domestic tourism.

Last week’s five-day public holiday to mark labour day saw 295 million trips made within China, according to figures from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. This was 28% higher than pre-pandemic figures recorded in 2019.

The Transport Ministry’s figures are also staggering: 92 million rail trips; almost 10 million air trips and 1.25 billion highway journeys.

However, this comes as international arrivals continue to lag, with foreigners currently entering China at barely 30% of 2019 levels. Why the disparity?

The beautiful historical river town of Wuzhen, a short drive from Shanghai, is considered one of China’s top visitor sites for travellers of all types. When we arrive the little pathways and old bridges which cross narrow waterways are filled with visitors.

A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is to pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing – as if you have really been transported back hundreds of years.

Two women in their 20s, friends since high school, are visiting from Jilin Province in the north east. After arriving, they spend an hour getting their hair done in an elaborate imperial-era style – and they are full of praise for Wuzhen’s classical beauty.

We ask if, following the post-Covid opening up, many of their family and other friends have been travelling much? “Of course, after the pandemic, we’re all visiting other places.”

Nearby a local man who is selling ice-creams also says tourist numbers are “not that bad lately”.

As good as before Covid? “Almost the same,” he replies.

Shopkeeper Wang Ying, who sells traditional snacks, echoes this sentiment with a big smile on her face. “Business is going well, and it’ll only get better.”

BBC/KATHERINA TSE Wuzhen is considered one of China's top visitor sites
Wuzhen is considered one of China’s top visitor sites

All this will be seen as good news for the Chinese government. It’s been saying that a push on domestic consumption can counter the significant faltering portions of the economy.

Major players in the once-mighty property sector are struggling to stay afloat, local government debt continues to rise, and persistent youth unemployment has left highly qualified university graduates uncertain of their future.

Amid all these challenges, the Communist Party has set a target of “around 5%” GDP growth for this year. Apart from the fact that analysts have long questioned the veracity of the country’s official growth figures, economists are also asking how such a target can be reached, in any genuine sense, in 2024 without significant extra stimulus.

One lifeline could be a more buoyant travel scene which could bring broader business opportunities and greater service industry employment.

Schubert Lou, chief operating officer at travel agency Trip.com, told the BBC: “We’ve seen very strong domestic travel demand with search volumes in hotels up 67% compared to last year, and flight volumes up 80%.”

Tourism industry consultant Peng Han from Travel Daily is following the investment trail to see how the business community really views the possibilities in the sector.

“With famous international hotel brands – like Intercontinental, Marriott and Hilton – you just have to look at their growth in China in 2023,” he says. “Then check the performance goals for these large hotel groups in 2024 which have also been set relatively high. This shows that they are very optimistic about the growth potential of the Chinese market.”

But, while the volume of local travellers might be up, Mr Peng does point to the problem of per capita consumption which remains persistently low.

He says general uncertainty about the Chinese economy is putting more emphasis on saving, so people are looking for good value options. They are going on holidays and paying for things but doing so much more frugally.

This is where an increase in big-spending foreigners could help. But they are simply not travelling to China in the numbers they used to.

In 2019, nearly 98 million international visitors came to the country. Last year it was only 35 million – including business trips, students and the like. Mr Lou describes the domestic versus international market as “uneven”.

For many in the tourism industry here specialising in services for foreign travellers, “uneven” would be an understatement. Three years of harsh Covid prevention measures drove down arrivals from other countries, but that alone can’t account for the current situation.

Huang Songshan, the head of the Centre for Tourism Research in the School of Business and Law at Australia’s Edith Cowan University, blames this weakness in part to “the shifting geopolitical landscape globally”.

Getty Images Chinese performer
China’s culture and heritage has traditionally been a big draw for tourists

In the peer-reviewed East Asia Forum, he pointed to a 2023 survey carried out by the Pew Research Centre, writing that, “Most individuals in Western nations hold unfavourable views towards China. The Chinese government’s tightening grip on societal regulations could potentially cause discomfort for foreign travellers in China.”

Official travel advice from some governments echo this sentiment, at times quite harshly.

Washington warns potential travellers to “reconsider travel to Mainland China due to the arbitrary enforcement of local laws, including in relation to exit bans, and the risk of wrongful detentions”.

Australia advises “a high degree of caution” warning that “Australians may be at risk of arbitrary detention or harsh enforcement of local laws, including broadly defined National Security Laws”.

The political environment has also taken a toll on flight availability and price. This is especially the case with connections to and from North America. Last month’s 332 scheduled round trips between China and the US contrasts with 1,506 in April 2019.

As a result, finding a seat on a direct flight can be extremely difficult and those that are available are very expensive.

President Xi Jinping made a speech at a dinner on the sidelines of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in San Francisco last November addressing this point. “Today, President Biden and I reached important consensus,” he told the crowd.

“Our two countries will roll out more measures to facilitate travels and promote people-to-people exchanges, including increasing direct passenger flights, holding a high-level dialogue on tourism, and streamlining visa application procedures. We hope that our two peoples will make more visits, contacts and exchanges and write new stories of friendship in the new era.”

Washington has since increased the number of Chinese airline flights permitted to land – but only from 35 per week to 50. It is still well short of the 150 weekly trips pre-Covid.

The Biden administration is coming under pressure from unions and US airlines to not increase this any further because, they argue, Chinese airlines have an unfair advantage over them as they have state support; don’t face the same onerous Chinese regulations; and, crucially, can fly over Russian airspace, making trips shorter and cheaper.

A letter to the US government from the Chair of the House Committee on China, Mike Gallagher, and the committee’s top Democrat representative, Raja Krishnamoorthi, reads: “Should the US-China passenger carrier market expand without the US government addressing these significant issues, US aviation workers, travellers and airlines will pay a hefty price tag.”

Mr Lou says the frequency of international flight connections is definitely having an impact.

“What we are seeing right now, based on civil aviation data, is that inbound flight capacity won’t get back to even 80% of 2019 [levels] by the end of 2024.”

Then there are other potential turnoffs for those considering travelling in China, like the country’s state-of-the-art phone app payment and booking systems which work very smoothly for Chinese citizens and residents, but which can be an enormous headache if you have just arrived.

There are certain sites, transport options, and purchases which can only be accessed via Chinese electronic apps which are, at times, only available in Chinese.

Professor Chen Yong at Switzerland’s EHL Hospitality Business School is an authority on the economics of tourism in China. He thinks that hurdles relating to payment and booking apps can pose a real problem.

“Technologies such as social network websites, online maps, payment apps, among others, which foreigners have long been accustomed to using, are either unavailable or inaccessible when they travel to China,” he says.

“On the other hand, there are Chinese alternatives to these technologies that remain inaccessible to foreigners due to language barriers and differences in user habits. We need to bridge this divide because it affects the tourist industry badly.”

Back in Wuzhen, the presence of international travellers is much smaller than in years gone by, but there are still a few foreign faces in the crowd.

An Italian couple says the process of linking up to and using China’s payment apps was a challenge but that it was not insurmountable, though they add, with a laugh, that it is “much, much, much easier” if you have a Chinese friend to help you.

BBC/KATHERINA TSE Woman and child pose for selfies
Chinese officials have acknowledged that the foreign traveller numbers have been low but they are trying to turn this around

Eliseo, from California, says he has had problems making payments to small vendors who don’t accept credit cards and really no longer deal with cash. Another hurdle for him has been his bank at home which has blocked some payments, flagging them as potentially fraudulent coming from China.

Chinese officials have acknowledged that the foreign traveller numbers have been low but they are now trying to turn this around.

One way they’re attempting to attract more foreign visitors is by increasing the number of countries whose citizens don’t need a visa to enter. Trip.com says this resulted in an almost immediate increase in passenger arrivals from Southeast Asia.

In 23 Chinese cities, transit passengers from more than 50 countries are also able to stay for a few days visa free if they have an onward ticket. In Shanghai, hotels above a three-star level have been told that they should prepare to deal with international credit cards and an initial batch of 50 taxis have also started accepting them.

However, Professor Chen says “it would be too optimistic to envision a long-term growth in China’s inbound tourism”.

“The key is to establish a culture that puts service providers in the shoes of foreign tourists. They should imagine themselves being a foreigner who can’t speak or read Chinese and who doesn’t have a Chinese mobile number, payments apps and so on.”

He says that the culture around this can’t be changed overnight.

Yet, in places like Wuzhen – where the local travellers have already returned – the tourism companies are hoping that incredible sites like theirs will eventually be too much for foreigners to resist as well.

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UN rights chief ‘horrified’ by mass grave reports at Gaza hospitals

Reuters Palestinian civil defence workers dig mounds of earth in the grounds of Nasser hospital in Khan Younis, in the southern Gaza Strip (21 April 2024)ReutersPalestinian workers are exhuming bodies at Nasser hospital with shovels because they have no heavy machinery

The UN’s human rights chief has said he is “horrified” by the destruction of Gaza’s Nasser and al-Shifa hospitals and the reports of “mass graves” being found at the sites after Israeli raids.

Volker Türk called for independent investigations into the deaths.

Palestinian officials said they had exhumed the bodies of almost 300 people at Nasser. It is not clear how they died or when they were buried.

Israel’s military said claims that it buried bodies there were “baseless”.

But it did say that during a two-week operation at the hospital in the city of Khan Younis in February, troops “examined” bodies buried by Palestinians “in places where intelligence indicated the possible presence of hostages”.

Ten hostages who have now been released have said that they were held at Nasser hospital for long periods during their captivity.

Prior to the Israeli operation at Nasser, staff there had said they were being forced to bury bodies in the hospital’s courtyard because nearby fighting prevented access to cemeteries. There were similar reports from al-Shifa before the first Israeli raid on the hospital took place in November.

The Israeli military has said it has raided a number of hospitals in Gaza during the war because Hamas fighters have been operating inside them – a claim Hamas and medical officials have denied.

The war began when Hamas gunmen carried out an unprecedented cross-border attack on southern Israel on 7 October, killing about 1,200 people – mostly civilians – and taking 253 others back to Gaza as hostages.

More than 34,180 people – most of them children and women – have been killed in Gaza since then, the territory’s Hamas-run health ministry says.

A spokeswoman for the UN Human Rights Office said it was currently working on corroborating reports from Palestinian officials that 283 bodies had been found in Nasser hospital’s grounds, including 42 which had been identified.

“Victims had reportedly been buried deep in the ground and covered with waste,” Ravina Shamdasani told reporters in Geneva.

“Among the deceased were allegedly older people, women and wounded, while others… were found with their hands tied and stripped of their clothes.”

Mr Türk called for independent, effective and transparent investigations into the deaths, adding: “Given the prevailing climate of impunity, this should include international investigators.”

“Hospitals are entitled to very special protection under international humanitarian law. And the intentional killing of civilians, detainees, and others who are hors de combat [not participating in hostilities] is a war crime.”

On Monday, a spokesman for the Hamas-run Civil Defense force told BBC Arabic’s Gaza Today programme that it had received reports from local Palestinians that the bodies of a “large number” of people who had been killed during the war and buried in a makeshift cemetery in the hospital’s courtyard were moved to another location during the Israeli raid.

“After research and investigation, we learned that the occupation [Israeli] army had established a mass grave, pulled out the bodies that were in Nasser hospital, and buried them in this mass grave,” Mahmoud Basal said.

Gaza Today also spoke to a man who said he was searching there for the bodies of two male relatives which he alleged had been taken by Israeli troops during Israel’s recently concluded offensive in Khan Younis.

“After I had buried them in an apartment, the [Israelis] came and moved their bodies,” he said. “Every day we search for their bodies, but we fail to find them.”

Hamas has alleged that the bodies include people “executed in cold blood” by Israeli forces, without providing evidence.

Contains some violence and disturbing scenes.BBC Verify authenticates video from key moments in the story of Nasser Medical Complex in Gaza

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) said in a statement on Tuesday: “The claim that the IDF buried Palestinian bodies is baseless and unfounded.”

“During the IDF’s operation in the area of Nasser Hospital, in accordance to the effort to locate hostages and missing persons, corpses buried by Palestinians in the area of Nasser hospital were examined.

“The examination was conducted in a careful manner and exclusively in places where intelligence indicated the possible presence of hostages. The examination was carried out respectfully while maintaining the dignity of the deceased. Bodies examined, which did not belong to Israeli hostages, were returned to their place.”

The IDF said that its forces had detained “about 200 terrorists who were in the hospital” during the raid, and that they found ammunition as well as unused medicines intended for Israeli hostages.

It also insisted that the raid was carried out “in a targeted manner and without harming the hospital, the patients and the medical staff”.

However, three medical staff told the BBC last month that they were humiliated, beaten, doused with cold water, and forced to kneel for hours after being detained during the raid.

Medics who remained at Nasser after the Israeli takeover said they were unable to care for patients and that 13 died because of conditions there, including a lack of water, electricity and other supplies.

Reuters Palestinian officials tape off the courtyard of al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City as workers search for human remains (8 April 2024)ReutersThe UN Human Rights Office said it had received reports that 30 bodies were buried in the courtyard of al-Shifa hospital

On 1 April, Israeli troops withdrew from al-Shifa hospital, which is in Gaza City, following what the IDF said was another “precise” operation carried out in response to intelligence that Hamas had regrouped there.

The IDF said at the time that 200 “terrorists” were killed in and around the hospital during the two-week raid. More than 500 others were detained, and weapons and intelligence were found “throughout the hospital”, it added.

After a mission gained access to the facility five days later, the World Health Organization (WHO) said al-Shifa was “now an empty shell”, with most of the buildings extensively damaged or destroyed, and the majority of equipment unusable or reduced to ashes.

It also said that “numerous shallow graves” had been dug just outside the emergency department, and the administrative and surgical buildings, and that “many dead bodies were partially buried with their limbs visible”.

The IDF also said it had avoided harm to patients at al-Shifa. But the WHO cited the acting hospital director as saying patients were held in abysmal conditions during the siege, and that at least 20 patients reportedly died due to a lack of access to care and limited movement authorised for medics.

Spokeswoman Ms Shamdasani said reports seen by the UN human rights office suggested that a total of 30 bodies were buried in the two graves and that 12 of them had been identified so far.

Gaza’s civil defence spokesman told CNN on 9 April that 381 bodies had been recovered from the vicinity of al-Shifa, but that the figure did not include people buried in the hospital’s grounds.

The UN human rights chief also deplored as “beyond warfare” a series of Israeli strikes on the southern city of Rafah in the past few days, which he said had killed mostly women and children.

The strikes included one on Saturday night, after which a premature baby was delivered from the womb of her pregnant mother, who was killed along with her husband and other daughter.

Mr Türk also again warned against a full-scale Israeli ground assault on Rafah, where 1.5 million displaced civilians are sheltering, saying it would lead to further breaches of international humanitarian law and human rights law.

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Hak angket kecurangan pemilu baru sebatas usul, fraksi penggagas ‘belum solid’ – ‘Yang mendukung saja masih maju-mundur’

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Diana, salah satu pengunjuk rasa yang mendesak agar DPR RI segera menggulirkan hak angket
Keterangan gambar,Diana, salah satu pengunjuk rasa yang mendesak agar DPR RI segera menggulirkan hak angket pada Selasa (05/03)

Sejumlah anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) menyuarakan desakan agar lembaga parlemen tersebut menggulirkan hak angket terkait dugaan kecurangan Pemilu 2024 di tengah rapat paripurna pada Selasa (05/03).

Namun sejauh ini, usulan itu belum diikuti langkah konkret agar bisa digulirkan lebih lanjut.

Dari lima fraksi yang sempat diklaim “berkomitmen” mendukung hak angket, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB), dan Nasdem masih menegaskan komitmen itu pada Selasa.

Sementara itu, PDI-P menyatakan bahwa “hak angket itu perlu, tapi masih dalam kajian”. Sedangkan Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) “tidak berminat” menggunakan hak angket.

Belum ada satu pun fraksi yang menyatakan secara jelas kapan mereka akan menyerahkan tanda tangan untuk mengajukan hak angket secara resmi.

Pengamat politik dari Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional (BRIN) Aisah Putri Budiarti mendesak agar komitmen tersebut dibuktikan lebih jauh.

“Level komitmennya harus itu dibuktikan nanti, ketika benar-benar pengajuan angket dan interpelasi. Mereka harus menunjukkan bahwa gagasannya itu solid dan mapan,” kata Aisah kepada BBC News Indonesia.

“Ini ibaratnya yang mendukung saja masih maju-mundur menurut saya, dalam konteks PPP yang tiba-tiba berubah. Padahal, PR [pekerjaan rumah] ke depannya akan lebih berat lagi,” sambung Aisah.

Melihat situasi ini, Aisah mengatakan masih belum ada jaminan hak angket bisa benar-benar diwujudkan. Bahkan untuk bisa diajukan saja, belum tentu tercapai.

Ditambah lagi ada potensi lobi-lobi politik yang mungkin memecah soliditas para partai penggagas hak angket.

Dihubungi terpisah, pakar hukum tata negara Bivitri Susanti mengatakan bahwa masih ada kesempatan untuk menggulirkan hak angket setelah ini, mengingat masa persidangan sudah dibuka.

Hak angket, kata dia, harus diagendakan dalam rapat paripurna. Namun, pimpinan DPR dapat memfasilitasinya dengan menggelar rapat Badan Musyawarah, kemudian mengagendakan paripurna khusus membahas hak angket.

Keterangan video,Warga desak DPR realisasikan hak angket kecurangan pemilu: ‘Kecurangan ini sudah sangat transparan di depan mata’

Dalam rapat paripurna yang digelar pertama kali sejak Pemilu 2024 digelar pada Selasa, tiga anggota DPR dari Fraksi PKS, PKB, dan PDI-P mengusulkan soal pentingnya menggulirkan hak angket.

“Munculnya berbagai kecurigaan dan praduga di tengah masyarakat perihal terjadinya kecurangan dan pelanggaran dalam penyelenggaraan pemilu perlu direspons DPR RI secara bijak dan profesional,” kata Aus Hidayat Nur dari Fraksi PKS ketika menginterupsi rapat paripurna.

Sebaliknya, anggota DPR dari Fraksi Demokrat dan Gerindra mempertanyakan usulan itu, bahkan menyebut itu bukan aspirasi rakyat.

Wakil Ketua DPR Sufmi Dasco Ahmad (tengah), Lodewijk Freidrich Paulus (kanan), dan Rachmad Gobel (kiri) memimpin rapat saat rapat paripurna ke-13 masa persidangan IV tahun sidang 2023-2024 di kompleks Parlemen, Jakarta, Selasa (5/3/2024)
Keterangan gambar,Usulan mengenai hak angket pemilu mengemuka dari Fraksi PKS, PKB, dan PDI-P dalam rapat paripurna pada Selasa (05/03)

Rapat tersebut dipimpin oleh Wakil Ketua DPR RI dari Fraksi Gerindra, Sufmi Dasco. Itu karena Ketua DPR RI Puan Maharani tidak hadir dalam rapat tersebut karena sedang melakukan kunjungan kerja ke Paris, Perancis.

Sementara itu di depan Gedung DPR, ratusan orang berunjuk rasa mendesak DPR merealisasikan wacana hak angket.

“Pada dasarnya kan memang hak angket itu harus diperjuangkan di DPR, kalau tidak kita perjuangkan nanti tidak berproses. Kalau tidak berproses, ya tujuan kita tidak tersampaikan,” kata Rida, salah satu pengunjuk rasa dari Tangerang Selatan kepada wartawan BBC News Indonesia, Silvano Hajid.

Pengunjuk rasa lainnya, Diana, berharap lembaga-lembaga negara yang terlibat dalam proses pemilu “insaf”.

“Kecurangan itu sudah sangat transparan di depan mata, seolah-olah rasa malu itu sudah punah, pupus dari pribadi para petinggi dan penguasa negara kita,” ujar Diana.

Unjuk rasa mendesak hak angket di depan Gedung DPR RI pada Selasa (05/03)
Keterangan gambar,Unjuk rasa mendesak hak angket di depan Gedung DPR RI pada Selasa (05/03)

Wacana hak angket awalnya mengemuka setelah kubu pasangan calon nomor urut tiga, Ganjar Pranowo-Mahfud MD mendorong partai pendukungnya untuk mengajukan ini.

Dalam perkembangannya, kubu pasangan calon nomor urut satu Anies Baswedan-Muhaimin Iskandar pun turut menggaungkan. Begitu pula dengan para akademisi dan masyarakat sipil.

Survei Litbang Kompas pada 26-28 Februari 2024 juga menunjukkan bahwa 62,2% responden setuju jika DPR menggunakan hak angketnya untuk menyelidiki dugaan kecurangan dalam Pilpres 2024.

Bagaimana komitmen fraksi-fraksi soal hak angket?

Wakil Ketua Majelis Syuro PKS Hidayat Nur Wahid sempat menyatakan bahwa lima fraksi di parlemen masih berkomitmen untuk mengajukan hak angket. Kelima fraksi itu yakni PKS, Nasdem, PKB, PDI-Perjuangan, dan PPP.

Namun pada Selasa, usai rapat paripurna, PPP justru menyatakan “tidak beminat” untuk menggunakan hak angket.

Anggota Fraksi PPP Syaifullah beralasan hampir seluruh anggota Fraksi PPP masih berada di daerah pemilihan untuk mengawal suara mereka. Selain itu, mereka juga mempertimbangkan sisa masa jabatan anggota DPR yang tinggal enam bulan.

“Belum ada perintah partai ataupun fraksi untuk menandatangani usul hak angket,” kata Syaifullah Tamliha kepada BBC News Indonesia.

Padahal PPP adalah salah satu partai pengusung pasangan calon presiden nomor urut tiga, Ganjar Pranowo-Mahfud MD.

Wacana terkait hak angket ini pun mulanya diutarakan oleh Ganjar Pranowo. Sehari setelah pemilu digelar, Ganjar mendorong partai pengusungnya yakni PDI-P dan PPP untuk mengajukan hak interpelasi hingga hak angket.

Sementara itu, Fraksi Nasdem menyatakan tetap berkomitmen mendukung hak angket meski tidak ada perwakilan mereka yang menyuarakan hal itu pada rapat paripurna.

“Tidak ada kaitan antara komitmen dengan interupsi dalam paripurna. Jika sudah ada yang menyampaikan mengenai pentingnya hak angket menurut kami sudah mewakili. Yang penting ada tindakan konkretnya,” kata anggota Fraksi Nasdem, Taufik Basari melalui pesan singkat.

Pengunjuk rasa yang tergabung dalam Aksi Rakyat Semesta membawa poster saat menyampaikan aspirasinya di depan kompleks Parlemen, tepi Jalan S. Parman, Senayan, Jakarta, Jumat (1/3/2024).
Keterangan gambar,Pengunjuk rasa yang tergabung dalam Aksi Rakyat Semesta membawa poster saat menyampaikan aspirasinya di depan kompleks Parlemen, tepi Jalan S. Parman, Senayan, Jakarta, Jumat (1/3/2024).

Tindakan konkret itu, kata dia, berupa pemberian tanda tangan anggota untuk pengajuan hak angket.

Namun Nasdem sampai saat ini masih menunggu langkah dari Fraksi PDI-P sebagai inisiator pengusul hak angket.

“Dokumen harus diajukan bersama-sama lintas fraksi. Komunikasi sedang berjalan, segera setelah semuanya siap tentunya kami akan ajukan. Secepat mungkin semakin baik,” kata Taufik.

Sementara itu, Mardani Ali Sera dari PKS mengatakan komunikasi politik terkait hak angket “masih dijalankan”

Terkait sikap PPP yang menyatakan “tak berminat” mengajukan hak angket, Mardani mengatakan setiap partai memiliki hak masing-masing.

“Tapi kami sih berharap pendukung-pendukung yang merasakan kecurangan ayo bergabung bersama,” kata dia.

Sejauh ini, Mardani mengatakan materi hak angket mengenai dugaan kecurangan pada Pilpres 2024 sudah mereka siapkan bersama dua partai lainnya yang mengusung Anies-Muhaimin. Di samping itu, materi terkait dugaan kecurangan pada pileg masih dikumpulkan.

Adapun PDI-P menyatakan bahwa hak angket itu “perlu, tapi masih dalam kajian”.

“Naskah akademis sudah disiapkan,” kata Aria Bima kepada wartawan di Gedung DPR RI.

Menurutnya, DPR tidak bisa antipati terhadap usulan hak angket, interpelasi atau pansus atau pengawasan di masing-masing komisi.

PKB: ‘Kita tidak boleh tinggal diam’

Dalam interupsinya, Aus Nur Hidayat mengatakan ingin menyampaikan aspirasi masyarakat agar DPR RI menggunakan hak angket untuk mengklarifikasi kecurigaan dan praduga masyarakat atas permasalahan Pemilu 2024.

“Hak angket adalah salah satu instrumen yang dimiliki DPR dan diatur dalam Undang-Undang Dasar, dan Undang-Undang bisa digunakan untuk menjawab kecurigaan dan praduga itu secara terbuka dan transparan,” kata Aus.

Apabila kecurigaan itu terbukti, maka bisa ditindaklanjuti sesuai UU. Kalaupun tidak terbukti, menurutnya ini bisa menjadi sarana untuk mengklarifikasi dan menjaga integritas pemilu.

Lulu Nur Hamidah dari Fraksi PKB juga menyatakan “menerima begitu banyak aspirasi dari banyak pihak” terkait hak angket.

“Saya mendukung hak angket ini kita lakukan semata-mata untuk memberi kepastian bahwa seluruh proses Pemilu 2024 benar-benar dijalankan berdasarkan daulat rakyat, kejujuran, keadilan, etika yang tinggi. Di sini lah fungsi kita yang sedang ditunggu oleh rakyat,” tuturnya.

“Kita tidak boleh tinggal diam,” sambung Lulu.

Anggota DPR dari Fraksi PKB Lulu Nur Hamidah
Keterangan gambar,Lulu Nur Hamidah dari Fraksi PKB juga menyatakan “menerima begitu banyak aspirasi dari banyak pihak” terkait hak angket

Sementara itu, Aria Bima dari PDIP menyatakan “berharap” pimpinan DPR dapat menyikapi seruan mengenai “hal-hal yang perlu dicermati terkait pemilu ke depan”.

“Kami berharap pimpinan menyikapi dalam hal ini, mengoptimalkan pengawasan fungsi komisi, interpelasi, atau angket atau apapun supaya kualitas pemilu ke depan itu harus ada hal-hal yang dilakukan dengan koreksi aturan kita..”

“..dan mengoptimalkan fungsi pengawasan kita sebagai anggota legislatif yang tidak ada taringnya, tidak ada marwahnya di dalam pelaksanaan pemilu kemarin. Walaupun tanda-tanda itu sudah kelihatan dari awal,” ujar Aria.

Gerindra: ‘Yang mendesak bagi masyarakat bukan hak angket’

Di sisi lain, politisi dari Fraksi Gerindra dan Demokrat menyatakan sebaliknya.

Herman Khaeron dari Fraksi Demokrat mempertanyakan hal-hal apa yang perlu didalami melalui hak angket tersebut.

“Apa yang sesungguhnya akan kita angketkan, kita dalami, kita selidiki perjelas dulu. Sehingga tidak serta merta menuduh kecurangan, bahkan mendegradasi hak konstitusional rakyat, hak suara rakyat yang telah dicurahkan di dalam pemilu. Kalau brutal, brutalnya di mana?” tutur Herman di tengah rapat paripurna.

Dia menyarankan agar hak angket diajukan saja apa substansinya dan itu akan mereka bahas bersama.

Sedangkan Kamrussamad dari Fraksi Gerindra mengeklaim bahwa aspirasi yang “mendesak” bagi masyarakat adalah isu pengangguran dan penciptaan lapangan kerja.

“Bukan hak angket. Yang diperlukan mereka justru adalah hak para sopir angkot, ribuan bahkan puluhan ribu yang anak-anak mereka, masa depannya, sekolahnya, belum tentu mereka bisa penuhi,” kata Kamrussamad.

“Jangan sampai respons dari teman-teman yang tidak siap kalah menunjukkan dalam sejarah kita merupakan respons terburuk dalam pemilu reformasi ini, karena belum menggunakan instrumen hukum yang disiapkan UU sudah menuduh pemilu curang,” sambung dia.

Potensi lobi-lobi politik untuk memecah soliditas partai penggagas

Pengamat politik dari BRIN Aisah Putri Budiarti menilai soliditas dan komitmen dari fraksi-fraksi yang menggagas hak angket itu “belum kuat” berdasarkan perkembangan yang terlihat sejauh ini.

Menurutnya, wacana itu “sudah pasti” akan diwarnai lobi-lobi politik yang dapat memecah soliditas fraksi-fraksi penggagas.

“Pasti akan ada lobi-lobi politik juga yang berkaitan dengan upaya tarik menarik kekuatan, dukung dan tidak mendukung hak angket ini,” kata Aisah.

Momen pertemuan antara Presiden Joko Widodo dengan Ketua Umum Partai Nasdem Surya Paloh pada 18 Februari lalu bisa jadi menggambarkan itu.

“Kita tidak ada yang tahu isi pertemuan itu, tapi kan dugaannya berkaitan ini. Dan [lobi-lobi] politik ini pasti menjadi bagian dari dinamika politik. Bukan hal yang mengejutkan,” ujar dia.

Pada akhirnya, itu bisa mempengaruhi soliditas para partai penggagas untuk benar-benar mengajukan hak angket.

Ketua umum Partai Nasional Demokrat (NasDem) Surya Paloh menyapa simpatisan saat kampanye akbar di Lapangan Desa Batuphat Timur, Kecamatan Muara Satu, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Jumat (2/2/2024).

Dia mengingatkan agar fraksi-fraksi di DPR mengutamakan kepentingan publik di atas kepentingan partainya sendiri.

Pasalnya, langkah ini penting dilakukan di tengah dugaan publik yang kuat soal kecurangan pemilu.

Sementara itu, lembaga-lembaga yang semestinya berwenang seperti Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu) dan Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) pun turut diragukan.

Apa syarat hak angket dan seberapa besar peluangnya bergulir?

Hak angket adalah hak yang dimiliki DPR untuk menyelidiki pelaksanaan suatu undang-undang dan/atau kebijakan pemerintah yang penting, strategis, dan berdampak luas bagi masyarakat.

Hak tersebut dijamin dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 2014 tentang Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, Dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah.

Berdasarkan ketentuan pada pasal 199, hak angket dapat diusulkan oleh paling sedikit 25 orang anggota DPR dan lebih dari satu fraksi di DPR.

Usulan tersebut baru dinyatakan sebagai hak angket apabila disetujui dalam rapat paripurna DPR yang dihadiri lebih dari setengah anggota DPR, dan disetujui oleh lebih dari setengah jumlah anggota yang hadir.

Kalau dihitung berdasarkan kursi yang dimiliki oleh PKS, PKB, PDIP, dan Nasdem, syarat itu semestinya bisa terpenuhi. Keempat partai itu menguasai sekitar 51% kursi di parlemen.

Itupun kalau keempatnya benar-benar mewujudkan komitmennya.

Aisah menggarisbawahi bahwa semakin lama fraksi-fraksi ini menunda sikap mereka, semakin sedikit pula waktu yang tersedia mengingat sisa masa jabatan DPR periode ini tinggal beberapa bulan lagi.

Itu juga berarti peluang hak angket dapat benar-benar bergulir akan semakin kecil.

“Kalau mereka serius, semestinya masih bisa berjalan meskipun waktunya pendek,” kata Aisah.

Dalam konteks saat ini, dia menyoroti sejumlah kendala yang mungkin muncul dalam proses pengajuan hak angket ini.

Pertama, kesibukan para anggota fraksi untuk mengawal perolehan suaranya dalam pemilu.

Kedua, sisa waktu yang sedikit. Menurutnya, hak angket tidak akan berjalan efektif ketika sudah berganti periode.

Ketiga, kesiapan partai penggagas soal materi-materi yang akan diselidiki.

“Itu harus benar-benar matang dan siap, supaya nanti benar-benar tepat sasaran apa yang mau ditanyakan, apa yang mau dinvestigasi. Tidak sekadar menggolkan angket,” jelas Aisah.

“Landasannya harus jelas dan harus ketahuan, bahkan harus detil supaya ketahuan celah-celah yang dianggap curang itu di mana dan apa yang harus dibuktikan oleh pemerintah nanti,” kata dia.

Tantangan lainnya adalah soliditas para partai penggagas akibat lobi-lobi politik tadi.

Meskipun pengajuan hanya mensyaratkan usulan dari 25 anggota yang berasal lebih dari satu partai, namun soliditas ini dibutuhkan untuk mendapat persetujuan dalam rapat paripurna.

“Kalau tidak semua partai penggagas solid mendukung itu, tidak sampai ke proses angket ya bisa gagal duluan. Jadi jangankan berpikir hasilnya, tapi sampai angketnya jadi saja kita masih harus melihat dulu apakah nanti benar-benar bisa digulirkan,” ujar Aisah.

Bisakah hak angket membatalkan hasil pemilu?

Jawabannya adalah tidak.

Pakar Hukum Tata Negara Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS), Agus Riewanto, mengatakan kepada Kompas.com bahwa hak angket hanya akan menghasilkan rekomendasi atau teguran dari DPR kepada pemerintah.

Aisah juga mengatakan bahwa hasil paling realistis dari bergulirnya hak angket adalah perbaikan pelaksanaan pemilu selanjutnya.

Namun setidaknya hak angket dapat menjadi wadah untuk mengklarifikasi apakah kecurigaan publik terkait kecurangan pemilu itu benar atau tidak. https://kueceng.com/

Cameroonian singer Mr Leo on finding the ‘power of our voice’

Mr Leo
Image caption,Mr Leo’s new album will drop in March

Mbolé-pop star Mr Leo’s next musical mission is to break through to English-speaking audiences – and he hopes his new album will do the trick.

The singer-songwriter from Cameroon has been wooing French-speaking West Africa and the diaspora with his melodious love songs and infectious dance tunes since 2015.

Born Fonyuy Leonard Nsohburinka, Mr Leo shot to fame with E Go Betta. That first single was one of the biggest tunes on radio and TV in 2015 – in and out of Cameroon.

He fuses Afrobeats with the country’s home-grown mbolé music, a blend of the rhythms and sounds of Cameroon like makoosa.

He’s won multiple awards – and in 2021 he was selected to be part of the musicians who cast votes for the prestigious Grammys.

Mr Leo’s path into music wasn’t straightforward. As a schoolboy, he joined the school choir – only because that was the only way to spend time with a girl he liked. His father, a stern military man, blocked his path because he wanted his son to be a medical doctor.

But “music chose me”, says Mr Leo.

“Each time I sang, it got me into a place where I really enjoyed myself. I created a world that I could fully control – without my father telling me exactly what to do – and I could just be myself,” he says.

Mr Leo
Image caption,Mr Leo fled his home due to conflict in Cameroon

His third, 14-track album, Good Vibes drops in March – and as its title suggests it is full of positive lyrics and uplifting melodies. He sings in English, French and Lamso.

“I’m all about the One Love spirit, being there when people need and bringing out positivity,” he says.

“I just feel like if this is a gospel that people really preach around the world, it will change something, – because everyone is going through a lot of trying times.”

His music and musical growth has been influenced by the conflict in Cameroon. Since 2017, Cameroon’s mainly English-speaking north-west and south-west regions have seen a guerrilla war between government forces and insurgents fighting for the independence of the region they call Ambazonia.

Mr Leo has been personally affected – like hundreds of thousands other people, he’s been displaced and had to move from his hometown of Buea to the main town of Douala. And many of his friends and acquaintances have been killed.

“It makes me value my time more and it makes me want to do something as an artist,” he says.

“We’re not politicians, we don’t have seats in power – but we do have the power of our voice and the least I can do is use my voice to talk through one or two of my songs.” https://kueceng.com/

Hull: Amy Johnson Cup for Courage returns after 12 years

Amy Johnson
Image caption,Amy Johnson in 1930 at the London Aeroplane Club

Hull City Council is inviting nominations for the 2024 Amy Johnson Cup for Courage after a 12-year hiatus.

Nominees must be 17 or under, have been born in Hull and have to have committed a “signal act of courage” in the previous year while living in the city.

The Cup for Courage was first awarded in 1931, arising from the famous local aviator’s solo flight to Australia.

Midge Gillies, Miss Johnson’s biographer, said: “A part of [Amy Johnson] would always be a Hull girl.”

The last award-winner was Keleighsha Thorpe in 2012, who was 10 when she saved her grandmother’s life after their home in Clarendon Street was targeted by arsonists.

She had woken in the night and smelt smoke, then woke her grandmother in time for them both to escape the burning building.

Her name was entered in the city’s roll of honour at the Guildhall as a result.

Alison Henderson, of Hull City Hall, explained that the 12-year break since 2012 – the longest ever without the trophy being awarded – had happened because the responsibility for organising it had fallen through the cracks after staff changes.

The award originated shortly after Amy Johnson made her record-breaking solo flight to Australia in 1930, in her Gipsy Moth biplane called Jason.

One of the many gifts she received after her arrival down under was gold bullion worth £25, the money for which had been collected and presented to her by the children of Sydney, New South Wales, as a gesture of appreciation.

On her return to Hull she donated the sum to the city corporation, as it was then, along with a trophy.

A deed was drawn up establishing the Cup for Courage to be awarded annually. The deed stated that Miss Johnson intended it to establish “some connection between the children of Australia and the children of England”.

Cup for Courage
Image caption,The trophy has been awarded on 34 occasions since 1931

Ms Gillies, author of Johnson’s 2003 biography Queen of the Air, said: “The Cup for Courage is harder to award than you would imagine.

“You have to go through the schools, police and fire service to find a suitable candidate. There have been many years when it wasn’t awarded at all because it wasn’t possible to find anyone.

“Amy said at the time that she thought of it as being not just for physical courage but for moral courage too.”

‘Moral courage’

According to city council documents, the terms of the 93-year-old trust “indicate that it was Miss Johnson’s wish not to encourage any foolhardy acts by young people but… to foster and encourage those acts which occur from time to time in respect of rendering assistance to others and saving others from injury”.

“The idea of courage is so interesting,” said Ms Gillies. “These days women have the chance to be physically courageous, more so than in Amy’s time.

“But on the other hand we all have to stand up and be counted. Moral courage might be something like standing up to prejudice.”

British aviator Amy Johnson
Image caption,British aviator Amy Johnson died after her aircraft crashed into the Thames in 1941

Ms Gillies said that Amy Johnson was already an inspiration to young people after her Australia trip. “She used to get all sorts of letters and the envelopes would say things like ‘For Amy who lives in Hull’. But they still got there.

“She looked like a young girl, you see. But then with the flying she did something that was so physical. And then she became a motor mechanic as well because if you’re going to fly a biplane all the way to Australia on your own you have to be,” she said.

“I think she felt a heavy responsibility to continue to inspire young people,” said Ms Gillies.

‘A Hull girl’

“Amy was very fond of Hull and very loyal to Hull. But she didn’t have a Hull accent in the recordings of her, which bemused her friends. She sounded like Joyce Grenfell because she lost her accent when she went to London.”

Amy Johnson died in 1941 in circumstances that have provoked a lot of speculation over the years. But she has been immortalised in popular culture, including as a character in a Doctor Who story.

“Something else tragic about her life was that she lost a younger sister to suicide, so Hull had painful memories for her,” said Ms Gillies. “But a part of her would always be a Hull girl.”

Nominations for the 2024 Amy Johnson Cup for Courage should be sent to Hull City Council by 29 February. https://kueceng.com/

James Marape: PNG leader makes historic speech in Australia amid China tensions

Papua New Guinea’s prime minister has hailed ties with “big brother” Australia in a historic and closely watched speech in Canberra.

James Marape’s address to Australia’s parliament – the first by a Pacific Island leader – comes as Australia and China race for influence in the region.

It is also nearly the 50th anniversary of PNG’s independence from Australia.

“Nothing will come in between our two countries because we are family,” Mr Marape told Australian MPs.

In jest, he added that “one can choose friends, but one is stuck with family forever” and “we have no choice but to get along”.

Mr Marape joins an elite list of overseas leaders who’ve addressed lawmakers in Canberra, including the Chinese President Xi Jinping, former US President Barack Obama, and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

PNG is Australia’s nearest neighbour. The two nations are separated by just a few kilometres of sea in the Torres Strait where the Pacific and Indian Oceans meet. It is the only country that can be seen from Australia’s shoreline

There are two main undercurrents to Mr Marape’s visit. Firstly, there’s unrest at home sparked by a strike by police officers, which has destabilised his government and could potentially lead to a motion of no confidence in his leadership within days.

Then there’s China, and its growing ambitions in the Pacific, which have reignited a diplomatic race with Australia.

In 2021, Beijing signed a security pact with Solomon Islands, a strategically located archipelago north-east of Australia. Canberra has responded, striking accords with neighbours big and small, including PNG, the largest Pacific Island nation.

Mr Marape did not make reference to China in his speech.

He twice emphasised that “a strong economically empowered Papua New Guinea means a stronger and more secure Australia in the Pacific”, and concluded by urging Australia to “contribute where you can and leave the rest to us”.

James Marape and Anthony Albanese
Image caption,Mr Marape with Australian counterpart Anthony Albanese

It’s clear the regional dynamics are changing, said Dirk van der Kley, a senior research fellow at the Australian National University’s (ANU) National Security College.

“We [Australia] are used to being the leading economic and security power within the Pacific region and that is probably still true,” he told the BBC.

“[But] there is concern in the government and more broadly in Australian society that our ability to shape events in our region may be less than it was previously.”

“Australia has been trying hard – prompted by China’s rise in the region – to change its behaviour. In many cases Australia is out in front of China.”

Last November, Canberra announced a security and climate change accord with Tuvalu, a grouping of several low-lying coral atolls in the South Pacific. A month later, Australia reached its security agreement with PNG. But within weeks, PNG’s foreign Minister Justin Tkachenko had dropped an apparent diplomatic bombshell when it was reported that his government was talking to Beijing about forging a similar type of deal.

This week, Mr Tkachenko has backtracked, blaming “misinformation” for suggesting a security pact with China was being negotiated. Australia, he insisted, was PNG’s partner of choice.

Canberra regards the Pacific as its traditional sphere of influence. China is, geographically speaking, a distant power. So, why is Beijing investing so much time and money in a remote and sparsely populated part of the world?

Kiribati, for instance, is made up of 33 coral atolls spread over 3.5 million sq km of ocean – an area larger than India. It’s home to about 130,000 people.

“You are talking about a handful of countries that are spread a long way out from each other with relatively small populations that are relatively poor,” said Mr van der Kley. “China is trying to increase its influence in the region so that it can shape the global order.”

It’s part of a strategy to undermine Taiwan, experts say.

“The diplomatic dividend of having strong relations with PNG and other Pacific countries is very important for China partly as it seeks to erode international diplomatic support for Taiwan,” said Mihai Sora, a research fellow at the Lowy Institute, a research organisation based in Sydney.

Flames from unrest in Papua New Guinea earlier this year
Image caption,Papua New Guinea has seen bouts of unrest – including last month

In January, Nauru, a small Pacific republic, re-established formal diplomatic relations with China after severing ties with Taipei, boosting support for Beijing in international forums. At the UN, a vote cast by Nauru (population 13,000) is equal to that of the US (population 333 million).

China also sees opportunity in Papua New Guinea’s rich reserves of natural resources, including gas, minerals, fisheries and forestry.

But perhaps the unbreakable relations between Indigenous Torres Strait Islanders who live on the tip of Queensland and their cousins to the north will give Australia an advantage in the race for influence and alliance.

“Culturally and socially they are completely intertwined. It would be impossible to delineate where one kinship network begins and ends,” Lowy Institute Pacific Islands project director Mihai Sora told the BBC.

“The communities in the far north of Australia with their counterparts across the sea in Papua New Guinea have a unique governance framework that manages the travel between the two halves of the same cultural group.”

Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese said the two countries could not be closer.

“Neighbours and mates, partners and equals,” he told parliament. “Today, our government is partnering with yours to build the architecture of peace and opportunity. We embrace each other as equals.” https://kueceng.com/

Tesco changes how it shows Clubcard prices after row

Tesco shoppers

Tesco is changing how it displays prices on its Clubcard deals in stores and online following criticism from the consumer organisation Which?.

The price per unit will now be displayed alongside the total price.

The move comes after Which? said the UK’s biggest supermarket could have been breaking the law over how it displayed Clubcard prices, making it tough for shoppers to compare deals.

The supermarket challenged the claims, but has now said it will make changes.

“This is something that we have been planning to do for some time,” said Tesco’s UK chief executive Jason Tarry, who said there were 8,000 Clubcard offers every week.

“Over the coming weeks these changes will appear in all our stores, as our colleagues update millions of price labels on the shelf edge. We will also be adding these unit prices to our Clubcard Prices deals online,” he wrote in a blog.

Rocio Concha, Which? director of policy and advocacy, said that prices needed to be clear when some consumers were struggling to afford meals.

“The lack of unit pricing on Tesco’s Clubcard offers was a glaring omission and we warned that this approach could be breaking the law last summer, so it’s good to see the nation’s largest supermarket stepping up to do the right thing by making this important change,” she said.

“We look forward to seeing this rolled out quickly across all stores and online so shoppers can benefit as soon as possible.”

The Tesco Clubcard is a loyalty scheme that offers members discounted prices on products.

As reported by the BBC in June last year, Which? reported the supermarket to the regulator, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA), pointing to prices of ketchup as an example of unclear pricing.

Which? had said Tesco’s decision not to display unit pricing on its Clubcard offers could be breaking the law.

According to competition rules, unit prices could be seen as “material information” which most people would need in order to make an informed decision about how to get the best value from what they are buying.

In its response at the time, Tesco said it complied with all current rules and called Which?’s claims “ill-founded”.

Sarah Taylor, food and beverage regulation partner at Keystone Law, said that while Tesco’s move to start unit pricing on its Clubcard deals was welcomed by campaigners, it might prove difficult for some products.

“Products with a very short shelf-life and ‘meal deals’ where the promotion applies when purchasing a combination of different products may present particular challenges,” she said.

Food prices recorded their first monthly fall in more than two years in January, but the cost of a weekly shop still remains much higher than two years ago.

Falls in prices for food items such as crackers, cake and crisps helped offset the rise in electricity and gas costs to keep overall annual inflation – the rate at which prices rise – unchanged at 4%. Cooking sauce and instant coffee costs also eased. https://kueceng.com/

‘Jangan tatap mata mereka’: Bertemu dengan para narapidana di mega-penjara El Salvador

Three inmates covered with tattoos, behind bars at Cecot prison, El Salvador
Keterangan gambar,Tiga narapidana bertato, di balik jeruji penjara raksasa Cecot, El Salvador

Ratusan mata mengikuti kami. Kepala mereka dicukur, pakaian putih bersih, dan bertato tebal, para tahanan tahu bahwa mereka sedang diawasi dan membalas tatapan dari sisi lain jeruji.

Kami berada di Cecot – Centro de Confinamiento del Terrorismo – sebuah penjara keamanan maksimum yang dibangun setahun yang lalu oleh pemerintah Presiden Nayib Bukele untuk anggota-anggota “tingkat tinggi” dari geng-geng besar El Salvador.

Sebuah proyek raksasa yang dibangun di daerah antah-berantah, lebih dari apa pun itu melambangkan kebijakan keamanan kontroversial buatan Bukele.

Penjara besar itu sering disebut oleh para pengkritiknya sebagai “lubang hitam hak asasi manusia”, sebuah “ceruk beton dan baja di mana ada upaya jahat untuk membuang orang tanpa menerapkan hukuman mati”, dalam kata-kata Miguel Sarre, mantan anggota Subkomite PBB untuk Pencegahan Penyiksaan.

Tapi penjara itu juga merupakan alasan utama Bukele menjadi sangat populer di negara yang telah menderita lama akibat geng-geng kejahatan terkenal, seperti Mara Salvatrucha, Barrio 18, Los Revolucionarios dan Los Sureños.

“Di sinilah para psikopat, teroris, pembunuh yang membuat negara kita berkabung,” kata direktur pusat itu, yang tidak ingin disebutkan namanya tetapi membiarkan dirinya direkam.

Ia akan menjadi pemandu kami selama kunjungan yang terorganisir secara hati-hati ke sel-sel penjara itu.

“Jangan tatap mata mereka,” ia memperingatkan kita.

Direktur penjar Cecot, memegang senapan dan memakai topeng
Keterangan gambar,Direktur Pusat Cecot menjadi pemandu wisata bagi jurnalis asing.

Meskipun sudah tengah malam, itu tidak masalah. Lampu buatan di penjara itu tidak pernah padam. Hembusan dari penyaring udara di langit-langit memberikan pendinginan sedikit dari panas.

Suhu dalam sel-sel dapat mencapai 35 derajat di siang hari dan tidak ada sumber ventilasi lain.

Penjara itu disebut sebagai “Alcatraz Amerika Tengah”, tetapi tidak terasa kumuh sama sekali – semuanya masih baru, halus, segar dilapisi cat.

Penjaga berkerudung berjaga dari atas, dengan membawa pistol di tangan.

Di bawah, para narapidana naik ke ranjang empat lantai tempat mereka tidur; Tanpa kasur atau seprai, mereka berbaring di atas logam dan makan nasi dan kacang-kacangan, telur rebus atau pasta dengan tangan mereka.

“Alat makan apa pun bisa menjadi senjata mematikan,” kata sang direktur.

Para tahanan di dalam sel duduk di ranjang susun setinggi empat lantai
Keterangan gambar,Di dalam sel, para tahanan tidur di ranjang susun dengan empat tingkatan.

Tidak ada hal lain di antara tiga dinding semen, kecuali dua wastafel untuk cuci tangan dan dua toilet yang digunakan terbuka di depan semua orang.

Dan tidak ada aktivitas yang bisa dilakukan selain membiarkan waktu berlalu.

Para narapidana hanya bisa meninggalkan sel-sel mereka selama 30 menit sehari, untuk berolahraga – hanya menggunakan berat tubuh mereka sendiri – di koridor tengah Blok 3, yang sedang diperiksa para wartawan.

Ada tujuh unit lain yang sama seperti ini, penjara-penjara independen di dalam kompleks besar yang ukurannya setara dengan tujuh stadion sepak bola, dikelilingi oleh dua pagar listrik dan dua dinding beton, dijaga oleh 19 menara.

Gambar penjara Cecot yang menunjukkan lokasinya di El Salvador
Keterangan gambar,Cecot terletak di Tecoluca, yang berjarak 74 kilometer (46 mil) sebelah tenggara ibukota, San Salvador.

Masih tidak jelas apakah para narapidana Cecot baru ditahan atau dipindahkan dari penjara lain, dan alasan mengapa mereka yang dipilih untuk ditempatkan di fasilitas ini.

Selain itu, tidak diketahui juga berapa banyak tahanan yang benar-benar ada di penjara raksasa itu, yang menurut pemerintah dapat menampung hingga 40.000 tahanan.

Lalu, berapa banyak yang mereka harapkan dapat ditransfer?

Meskipun sudah menghabiskan berbulan-bulan untuk riset, BBC belum memiliki jawaban yang memuaskan untuk pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini.

Kami bertanya langsung kepada direktur, yang menjawab: “Kami tidak dapat memberikan informasi itu.”

“Berapa kapasitas maksimum untuk setiap sel?” kami bersikeras.

“Jika Anda bisa muat 10 orang, Anda bisa muat 20,” kata direktur. Di balik masker pelindung dari Covid-nya, saya melihatnya tersenyum.

Semacam diberi pelajaran

Sejak dibuka pada 31 Januari 2023, BBC telah berulang kali meminta akses ke penjara raksasa tersebut.

Undangan itu akhirnya tiba pada 6 Februari melalui pesan WhatsApp dari petugas pers media internasional Kepresidenan: “Kami akan pergi ke Cecot malam ini.”

Titik pertemuan dan waktu diberikan kepada kami hanya setengah jam sebelum kami bergegaspergi.

Dua hari telah berlalu sejak Bukele menyatakan dirinya terpilih kembali dengan 85% suara, ia mengklaim bahwa partainya telah memenangkan hampir semua kursi di Majelis Legislatif bahkan sebelum tempat pemungutan suara (TPS) selesai menghitung surat suara.

Jurnalis dan penjaga penjara di dalam Cecot
Keterangan gambar,Jurnalis BBC dan jurnalis dari media lainnya memperoleh akses ke Cecot lewat tur berpemandu yang diatur dengan hati-hati

“Ini akan menjadi pertama kalinya hanya ada satu partai yang berkuasa di negara dengan sistem demokrasi penuh. Seluruh oposisi telah dihancurkan. El Salvador telah mencetak sejarah lagi hari ini,” teriaknya dari balkon Istana Nasional pada sore hari pemilihan.

Namun, ketika saya menulis ini (lima hari setelah pemilihan), El Salvador masih belum mengetahui hasil akhirnya karena banyak kegagalan dalam sistem penghitungan dan pencatatan suara karena keraguan tentang bagaimana surat suara dikelola.

Tidak ada yang mempertanyakan kemenangan presiden Bukele; perhatian telah difokuskan pada perjuangan memperebutkan 60 kursi di Majelis Legislatif, yang kendalinya sangat penting untuk program Presiden Bukele.

Nayib Bukele, presiden El Salvador, kiri, berbicara usai pemilihan presiden di San Salvador, El Salvador, pada Minggu, 4 Februari 2024
Keterangan gambar,Presiden Bukele berbicara kepada para pendukungnya dari balkon Istana Nasional pada hari pemilihan.

Ketika dia merayakan kemenangannya, Bukele mengucapkan selamat kepada dirinya sendiri atas pencapaian keamanan masa jabatan pertamanya dan menyerang para pengkritiknya di depan kerumunan yang bersorak-sorai di alun-alun pusat ibu kota, San Salvador.

“Kami berubah dari negara paling berbahaya di dunia menjadi negara teraman di seluruh Belahan Barat, negara teraman di seluruh benua Amerika, dan apa yang mereka katakan? ‘ Ini pelanggaran hak asasi manusia,” ungkapnya.

“Hak asasi manusia siapa? Bukan orang-orang jujur. Mungkin kami memprioritaskan hak-hak orang jujur di atas hak-hak penjahat, itu saja yang sudah kami lakukan,” lanjutnya.

Tur yang akan dijalankan berbagai wartawan media internasional dua hari kemudian dapat dianggap sebagai kelanjutan dari argumen ini.

Destinasi kami adalah penjara yang melambangkan kebijakan keamanan Bukele dan sarana utamanya, sebuah “keadaan pengecualian” – tindakan darurat yang memberikan kekuatan kejam kepada polisi dan militer – yang telah berlaku selama dua tahun.

Sekitar 70.000 orang ditahan di bawah kebijakan ini, dan El Salvador sekarang memiliki tingkat penahanan tertinggi di dunia.

Organisasi pegiat hak asasi manusia, baik di Salvador maupun internasional, mengeklaim ribuan dari para tahanan tidak memiliki hubungan jelas dengan kejahatan geng.

Beberapa dari mereka dipaksa untuk bekerja sama dengan geng, baik sebagai pengintai, menyembunyikan senjata atau obat-obatan untuk mereka, karena nyawa hidup mereka terancam.

Cristosal, organisasi pegiat HAM utama di negara Amerika Tengah itu, telah mendokumentasikan kasus-kasus penyiksaan dan lebih dari 150 kematian dalam tahanan negara selama “keadaan pengecualian”.

Dalam sebuah laporan pada Desember lalu, Amnesty International mengkritik “pergeseran bertahap dari kekerasan geng menjadi kekerasan negara”.

Tidak ada lembaga eksternal atau LSM yang pernah mengunjungi penjara, direktur memberi tahu kami, tetapi dia meyakinkan kami bahwa penjara itu mematuhi standar internasional.

Keamanan dengan segala cara

Setelah kami melewati pengecekan keamanan – terdiri dari tepukan, pertanyaan tentang tato dan mesin rontgen yang menunjukkan bahkan usus Anda pada layar – kami dibawa untuk bertemu beberapa tahanan.

Bukele menyatakan perang terhadap geng-geng dengan metode yang membuatnya mendapatkan popularitas yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, tetapi juga mengangkat pertanyaan serius tentang pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, dan direktur ingin kami berhadapan langsung dengan para prajurit lawan.

Para penjaga membawa lima individu yang telah dipilih sebelumnya dari sel mereka, tetapi terlebih dahulu mereka memborgol pergelangan tangan dan pergelangan kaki mereka. Dalam posisi jongkok dan ditaklukan, mereka menghadap dinding.

Mereka tidak diizinkan untuk berbicara.

Mesin x-ray menunjukkan organ dalam suatu subjek
Keterangan gambar,Langkah-langkah keamanan di penjara termasuk mesin x-ray untuk mendeteksi barang-barang tersembunyi yang bahkan menunjukkan organ internal.

“Kemarilah. Tolong balik badan. Buka bajumu.” Dia memperkenalkan kita pada tahanan pertama: Miguel Antonio Díaz Saravia, alias “Castor”, seorang “pembunuh bayaran untuk [geng] Mara Salvatrucha”, kami diberitahu.

Pada 2022, ia dijatuhi hukuman 269 tahun penjara karena menculik, menyiksa dan membunuh (bersama dengan anggota geng lainnya) empat tentara pada Oktober 2016.

Kemudian, Marvin Mario Parada, dihukum karena femisida pada 2012 terhadap Alison Renderos, seorang siswi berusia 16 tahun.

Ia seorang pegulat gaya bebas yang tajam yang diminta menunjukkan kepada kami tubuhnya yang bertato.

“Saya ingat bagaimana mereka pergi dan menemukan tubuhnya terpotong-potong di sebuah kanal di San Vicente,” kata seorang fotograferSalvador yang duduk di sebelah saya saat kami kembali ke ibukota.

Seorang tahanan memperlihatkan punggungnya yang ditato dengan simbol geng Mara Salvatrucha
Keterangan gambar,Tato pada narapidana ini menunjukkan bahwa dia adalah anggota geng Mara Salvatrucha

“Saya diminta meliput penggalian itu dan melihat bagaimana koroner meletakkan bagian-bagian tubuhnya di atas meja,” percakapan mengerikan itu berlanjut, kali ini dengan jurnalis foto lain.

Satu jam selama perjalanan itu diisi dengan cerita-cerita kengerian dan kejahatan paling mengerikan dari para anggota geng, seperti 17 penumpang minibus yang dibakar hidup-hidup pada 2010.

“Saya juga menghabiskan bertahun-tahun tanpa mengunjungi paman saya, yang tinggal di lingkungan yang sama,” lanjut fotografer itu, mengacu pada perbatasan tak terlihat yang selama beberapa dekade menandai area milik geng saingan.

“Jika Anda pergi ke sana, Anda tidak akan kembali.”

Para narapidana di sel di Cecot
Keterangan gambar,Tahanan di Cecot menghabiskan seluruh waktu, kecuali 30 menit, dari hari mereka di dalam sel mereka.

Saya sudah mendengar cerita-cerita serupa di pasar jalanan dan lingkungan yang lebih miskin, di hotel-hotel kota dan di pantai, pada hari-hari sebelum pemilihan 4 Februari.

Ada beberapa komentar yang mendukung keadaan darurat juga, yang menyarankan apa yang diprediksi oleh semua jajak pendapat: kemenangan cepat bagi Bukele dalam pemungutan suara.

Setelah hidup berpuluhan tahun dengan pemerasan di ambang pintu dan kekerasan di setiap tikungan, sebagian besar rakyat Salvador yang saya ajak bicara tampaknya bersedia menebus harga Bukele demi keamanan. https://kueceng.com/